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Frequently Asked Questions

DCore FAQ

DCT FAQ

Account or Wallet FAQ

Mining FAQ

Seeders FAQ

Consensus FAQ

Smart Contracts FAQ

General FAQ

DCore FAQ

What does DCore mean?

DCore is the heart of the DECENT ecosystem, it is the “core“ on which everything else relies.

What is the date for the DCore launch?

DCore has already launched. 30.6.2017.

Is DCore a public or private network?

DCore is community driven, public blockchain network. Using DPoS algorithm.

What are the minimum numbers for miners and seeders for running DCore?

11 miners and if using IPFS, 3 seeders are required as a bare minimum.

What tokens or currencies are used within DCore?

DCT is used for every transaction in DCore, it is an alt-coin. DCore is an independent blockchain that was designed specifically to facilitate safe and inherently trusted content distribution.

Moreover, it is possible to create your own custom tokens. Additional currencies can be allowed at the application interface level.

How is DCore anonymized?

Users can perform interactions under pseudonyms. To cover the “last mile” you should use other anonymization techniques (e.g. VPN, TOR, Proxy).

Does DCore have service/maintenance intervals?

There are no service intervals and there is no downtime. This is possible due to the decentralized blockchain technology the network is built upon. Multiple nodes have to be online in order to run DCore.

What consensus mechanism is implemented within DCore?

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) with 2 MB block size and 5 seconds block time interval.

DCT FAQ

What is DCT? Where can I get DCT?

DCT is a Platform Cryptographic Assets (a.k.a. an altcoin) with a limited supply. It has a mineable reserve and operates under DPoS algorithm on a dedicated independent blockchain and supporting infrastructure (DCore).

DCT backs all publishing, consuming, seeding, exchanging and mining on DCore. DCT also acts as a base for creating custom tokens with a variety of settings (unique, transferable, limited supply).

You can trade for DCT on exchanges. Miners and seeders also receive DCT as a reward for their services.

Are there incentives or rewards for holding DCT?

DCT is a fast, efficient platform cryptographic asset and is tied to a fully decentralized independent blockchain.

Does DCore have service/maintenance intervals?**

There are no service intervals and there is no downtime.

This is possible due to the decentralized blockchain technology the network is built upon. Multiple nodes have to be online in order to run DCore.

How is DCore anonymised?**

A: Users can perform interactions under pseudonyms. To cover the “last mile” you should use other anonymization techniques (e.g. VPN, TOR, Proxy).

What information is stored in the blockchain database?

Only token transactions, custom operation transactions, and content transactions (metadata) are stored in the blockchain database.

Who owns/runs the network?

The community.

Who is the community (sounds pretty vague)?

Not vague, just inclusive. Virtually and practically, anyone with interest can join the community and contribute. Miners, seeders, holders, community groups, and so on.

How does the DECENT foundation regulate the network?

DECENT publishes code/binaries and network updates to GitHub. Any real implementations must gain sufficient votes from miners prior to merging.

How do you fight censorship?

First, by immutability of blockchain. Second, by decentralization, encryption and voting. All over-seen by the community.

Are there incentives or dividends for voting or PoS Staking?

DCore is DPoS, so PoS style staking will not be implemented. When voting responsibly you get to rest safe knowing that you have done your part to ensure DCore (and your DCT) remains decentralized and secure.

Vesting will be introduced in Q2 and may provide some benefits for long term holders, like reducing transaction costs (details are still being discussed).

What can you do with your stake in DCT?

DCore is DPoS, Delegated Proof of Stake, so anyone holding DCT has a “Stake.”

In a DPoS system, stakeholders have a responsibility to make sure the network is adequately distributed to ensure the health and security of the network. DCT holders do this by voting. There are a number of things that can be voted on, like selecting active miners, a.k.a. witnesses. Selecting the number of active miners is also determined by voting.

The "delegated" part of DPoS, means that stakeholders are not all creating blocks but rather they vote for delegates to become witnesses (responsible for creating blocks) users can also delegate their voting rights to another account. This allows for voting pools and other trusted users to vote by proxy for those that don’t wish to vote directly themselves but still want to protect the network.

Account or Wallet FAQ

How do you get started? Do you need an account?

Yes, you need an account. You can use CLI Wallet if you know an existing member to help you.

Otherwise, please, create your account for free by visiting web-based wallet decentgo.com and follow the sign-in wizard.

Are accounts anonymous?

It could be anonymous (partially using pseudonyms and further through VPN, proxy, and so on).

Is my DCore account recoverable?

Yes. Only the account creator can recover their account. For this reason it is crucial to save your Brain Key in a safe place (even multiple places, offline too).

What is a Brain Key?

Sometimes called a Recovery Phrase, your Brain Key is essential for account recovery should you lose or forget your login credentials. It is a string, often represented as a list of random words.

How does account management work? Do you need to pay for account creation?

If you use decentgo.com, you will not need to pay for account creation. If you use CLI wallet, you will need an existing user to pay for you to start your account.

Do you need a username to interact with DCore Network via provided tools, like daemon, CLI wallet, GUI client?

Indeed, you do. Your username serves as your community identification.

Mining FAQ

How does difficulty change over time? What is the formula to calculate it?

In DPoS, there is no difficulty. Parameters do not change over time. Unlike hashed-based mining, in DPoS, the block must be validated by a selected miner, broadcast and acknowledged within 5 seconds. It is more of a real-time system than a computational one.

Can I mine with ASIC?

Not really, because in DPoS, there is no proof-of-work consensus that requires the hashing power provided by ASIC. Instead, there is latency-based mining with day-to-day selection of miners via community voting.

How is the voting mechanism implemented?

Voting is proportional to the stake of the miner - total of DCT tokens held. The voters select, on daily basis, the list of active miners who are then responsible for verifying and generating new blocks.

How is reward distributed to miners? Is it instant?

On daily basis, depends on participation rate, missed blocks and network fees from previous day. Allocated reward pool is distributed between elected miners for present day. Miners are rewarded after 24 hours of work. Reward is distributed directly to their accounts.

How many blocks are generated per day?

Let's count.

  • Number of blocks per minute = 12.
  • Number of blocks per hour = 720.
  • Number of blocks per day = 17.280.

What is the reward for a mined block?

Starts with 0.37 DCT per block. Within 20 years, ends with 0.04625 DCT per block. In order to give everybody time to join and participate, the first reward is paid in block 100.000.

How is the number of miners determined?

The number of miners is voted on daily basis by anyone holding DCT.

Seeders FAQ

What is the seeder's role?

A seeder acts as a host for media content in the form of an offered bandwidth and storage (filespace). These two things are made available to publishers and to consumers, in order to manage and exchange content.

How is seeder rewarded?

TheSeeder's reward is handled purely by the market. Seeding nodes advertise their price offer for hosting files and a media publishers will contract them by meeting their conditions. Afterwards, every 24h the seeder is rewarded for hosting media.

Please, note that seeding process is subject to proof-of-retrievability, i.e. seeders must provide constant and reliable access to content.

What is proof-of-retrievability?

It is the proofing process that verifies published content is available from its corresponding seeding nodes. Based on this validation, the reward for seeding and payment of consumer to publisher is guaranteed.

Consensus FAQ

How do you fight with the following centralization problems, e.g. double spend, majority owns votes, majority owns tokens, majority owns mining power?

By consensus design. See details on the DCore Technical description page.

How do you solve the "nothing at risk" problem?

By implementing voting and by taking miners stake into consideration. See details on the DCore Technical description page.

How is the network secured against forked/shadow chains?

By validating new blocks with selected miners. No other forks will live as multiple pre-chosen miners needs to validate the new block. See details on the DCore Technical description page.

How is the truthfulness of miners/seeders verified?

Through voting and rating of the community. Dedicated miners/seeders present themselves and their intent to be honorable on the forum.

What kind of consensus stability is provided in case that Atlantic rat cuts the cable that connects Europe and America?

Is this the worst case scenario, cable munching amphibious rodents? When reconnected, the longer blockchain will survive. See details in the DCore Technical description page.

How do you become a miner/seeder? Do you need a special account, promotion, permission or equipment? Do you need votes?

See Mining site or Seeding site.

How does DCore compare to forks from the graphene framework?

The main difference is in content/data distribution. DCore has native IPFS integration.

What is a block's confirmation time?

Depends on the number of active (selected) miners. Block is verified when a majority (⅔) of nodes confirms it, i.e transaction becomes irreversible. Whereas, the whole blockchain is immutable.

Right now we have 33 miners so 23 blocks need to be added as a confirmation of the block in question. It currently takes 5 secs per confirmation therefore block confirmation time is under 2 minutes before a block becomes irreversible.

What consensus mechanism is implemented?

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) with 2 MB block size and 5 seconds block time interval.

Smart Contracts FAQ

What are smart contracts on a blockchain?

Smart contracts are configured protocols intended to digitally enforce conditions and agreements on the blockchain, allowing the performance of credible transactions without the need of a third party 'agent'. In most cases, they are as immutable, traceable and transparent as any other blockchain operation. Depending on implementation, smart contracts can be hard-coded into the blockchain network, or user configurable via a Turing Complete scripting language.

Can you use smart contracts on DCore?

DCore provides a number of hard-coded smart contracts with wide functionality. Turing Complete contracts are not implemented since they are fundamentally insecure and would reduce DCore's well designed efficiency.

What is the difference between hard coded smart contracts and 'Turing complete' smart contracts?

Turing Complete contracts can reduce the overall security and integrity of the blockchain network. The lack of ability to enforce good programming practices on users, as well as the risk that they might not be honest actors and aiming to commit fraud makes them risky to implement despite their attractions. A number of blockchains have suffered on-chain frauds through the deliberate misuse of user definable smart contracts.

Transaction speed is also a big issue with user definable smart contracts taking orders of magnitude longer to trigger and run, seriously delaying transaction completion and, blockchain throughput.

Why would you prefer DCore smart contracts and what are the advantages?

Because the DCore smart contracts are immutable, well tested, and implemented by skilled engineers, they provide a high level of security for both parties that engage into a contract. They are fast and facilitate the high rate of Transactions Per Second that DCore is famous for (2000+ at the time of writing).